Underepresentation of women in positons of

Since then, women have made many strides in the political arena. The current Congress contains a record number of women:

Underepresentation of women in positons of

The study explained the role of exploitation and harassment, which might hinder, when women were trying to climb to top hierarchical position. The majority of women supervised by male heads, sexual harassment could be used as a glass ceiling to hamper women to reach top hierarchal level.

The majority participants were working on lower academic and administrative hierarchy; they were experiencing harassment throughout the hierarchical level. Similarly, they considered that harassment could contribute to the underrepresentation of women at academic excellence and a position of power.

Introduction Generations of women may have faced discrimination, harassment, male-dominating networks and intimidation globally [1] - [4].

Underepresentation of women in positons of

Universities are facing increasingly complex challenges in attracting and retaining human capital [5]women are under-represented in academic excellence positions-positions of power, decision-making, and influence and if they try to move up of hierarchical scale, there will be a hype of exploitation and discrimination [6] -[14].

The women of Pakistan may be disadvantaged relative to men of the same class.

Underepresentation of women in positons of

Social and cultural factors can have historically hindered most of women from entering the job market [10]. But with the recent changes in society caused by expansion of educational facilities and increased access to learning encourage more and more women to enter the job market in almost all spheres especially in the education sector and in higher education institutes in Pakistan.

In spite of this trend, however, men benefit more from improvements in the labour market than women. However, the majority of women are working on low echelons of hierarchical ladders. One of the biggest and oldest universities in Pakistan has a massive difference of number between male and female working on various hierarchical levels.

The majority of women are working on low academic hierarchy, i. As the majority of Pakistani women are poor and work very hard and long hours in very low productivity jobs, their social protection and safety networks are typically inadequate or totally missing. Therefore, the majority of female population cannot afford to be unemployed; they may face inequality, discrimination and sexual harassment as a part of the job [15].

Sexual harassment at workplace is leading form of gender based inequality which working women are facing today in Pakistan. Some women may advance to the top of middle management and academic grades, but are unable to pass through this barrier [19] - [28] and reach top of management, along with many other suppressing factors, sexual harassment is one of the major factors which are hindering women to move the top of hierarchical position.

What is, perhaps, unexpected is that sexual harassment is found throughout the employment hierarchy and not simply among those working on low hierarchy.

Other studies suggest that probably every Pakistani woman has been harassed at least once in public and workplace [33] [45] [46]. As the majority of women supervised by male bosses or heads so they might use, sexual harassment as a tool to prevent women to move up the hierarchy.

Other studies suggested that in various complaints of sexual harassment at workplaces, in almost a quarter of cases, the alleged harasser was identified as the head of the institute or the person in a superior position [35] [47].

However, women trying to climb to top hierarchical position, they might face various discriminations including harassment. These positions have often come at a cost to women who are able to achieve them.

These women might carry burdens of stereotyping, prejudice, sexual harassment, tokenism, and isolation [47]. In the last thirty years, acknowledgement of sexual harassment of women at the work place has reached a global scale [31] [48] [49].

Although, sexual harassment is an everyday crisis that hypothetically affects every woman [50].

How Americans View Women Leaders in Politics and Business | Pew Research Center

Like Pakistan, discrimination against women is a continuing problem around the world [51]. In the United States, Europe and many other parts of the world, women who are low in hierarchical status, have low organizational power, earn significantly less than men, and are more frequent targets of sexual harassment [32] [53] in addition, women in lower status positions are more likely to be supervised or managed by men instead by women [32]which increases the risk of sexual harassment by their male superiors, bosses, colleagues and clients.

The action and behaviours of sexual harassment cannot be generalized globally due to the cultural differences of behaviour, perception, and normative values that vary throughout the world [36] [54]these variations are obvious in difference of organizational cultures, socialization and individual characteristics [38] [55].

It is a widespread observation that social-sexual normative behaviours may vary culture by culture. One act or gesture like putting a person as a sign of approval might be quite normal in one society, but could be highly offensive in other [56] - [58] especially in Pakistani cultural perspective [59].

Sexual harassment is difficult to define because it involves identifying the act and understanding the way it is perceived and experienced by women. Much of the touching, flirting and joking that goes on between the sexes is not sexual harassment because it is mutual.

Sexual behaviour becomes harassment when it is unwanted and intrusive. In such cases, advancements are not welcomed, it offends and threatens the recipient [60] [61].

Various studies have established the link of glass ceiling and harassment with the underrepresentation of women at academic excellence and a position of power.

Mostly we have western views in this regard, whereas perspectives on Asian and especially Pakistani society are missing or inadequate. This study would highlight the reasons and experiences of women in Pakistan.

Despite professional eligibilities and ample opportunities, female employees are not aptly represented in the highest corridors of organizational power [62] - [64].

Informal networking and mentoring are frequently suggested as means of increasing the numbers of executive women [65]Further, networking with and mentoring offered by executive men can be less fruitful and more problematic for junior women, who may be assumed to be sexually involved with their mentors.

In sum, the relative lack of women managers and executives, the support roles many women workers provide to men workers, and occupational sex-segregation all facilitate sexual harassment.

· women comprised fewer than five percent of the seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, and only about ten percent of state legislative positions across the country. Today, if we glance at the television screen, peruse the newspaper, listen to the radio, or scan theskybox2008.com  · Women make up a majority of the U.S.

population, but they lag substantially behind men when it comes to their representation in leadership skybox2008.com://skybox2008.com  · Gender and Leadership: Reflections of Women in Higher Education Administration Abstract Scholarly work on leadership, both inside and outside the academy, has been male-centric, in that it most often has been conducted by men and focused on male leaders.

As a result, male behaviors and characteristics skybox2008.com?article=&context=ijlc. · The exclusion of women from vital positions of power, which shape the society in which we live, represents a huge barrier to the progress of women’s equality in the UK. Women and Power – Men outnumber women 4 to 1 in Westminster, and only 4 out of 23 cabinet ministers are skybox2008.com Recognizing the root causes of the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions—that is, the gender stereotypes that inform cultural assumptions about leadership potential and effectiveness—is the first concrete step toward the elimination of the obstacles women skybox2008.com://skybox2008.com  · women on an executive level, the ratio between men and women on this level is still disproportionate.

The underrepresentation of women in management positions in educational institutions, therefore, continues to be a matter of concern (Priola, ).skybox2008.com

Women Are Underrepresented In Politics, But It's Not For The Reason You Think | HuffPost