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Name of Switzerland The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swisswhich was in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War ofused alongside the term for "Confederates", Eidgenossen literally: Helvetica is derived from the Helvetiia Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era.
Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach. History of Switzerland Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th centuryforming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries.
Early history Main articles: Early history of Switzerland and Switzerland in the Roman era The oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back aboutyears. One of the most important tribal groups in the Swiss region was the Helvetii.
Steadily harassed by the Germanic tribesin 58 BC the Helvetii decided to abandon the Swiss plateau and migrate to western Galliabut Julius Caesar 's armies pursued and defeated them at the Battle of Bibractein today's eastern France, forcing the tribe to move back to its original homeland.
The area occupied by the Helvetii—the namesakes of the later Confoederatio Helvetica—first became part of Rome's Gallia Belgica province and then of its Germania Superior province, while the eastern portion of modern Switzerland was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia.
Sometime around the start of the Common Era, the Romans maintained a large legionary camp called Vindonissanow a ruin at the confluence of the Aare and Reuss rivers, near the town of Windischan outskirt of Brugg.
The first and second century AD was an age of prosperity for the population living on the Swiss plateau. Several towns, like AventicumIulia Equestris and Augusta Raurica, reached a remarkable size, while hundreds of agricultural estates Villae rusticae were founded in the countryside.
Around AD, the fall of the Agri Decumates territory north of the Rhine transformed today's Switzerland into a frontier land of the Empire. Repeated raids by the Alamanni tribes provoked the ruin of the Roman towns and economy, forcing the population to find shelter near Roman fortresses, like the Castrum Rauracense near Augusta Raurica.
The Empire built another line of defence at the north border the so-called Donau-Iller-Rhine-Limesbut at the end of the fourth century the increased Germanic pressure forced the Romans to abandon the linear defence concept, and the Swiss plateau was finally open to the settlement of Germanic tribes.
In the Early Middle Agesfrom the end of the 4th century, the western extent of modern-day Switzerland was part of the territory of the Kings of the Burgundians.
The Alemanni settled the Swiss plateau in the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps in the 8th century, forming Alemannia. Modern-day Switzerland was therefore then divided between the kingdoms of Alemannia and Burgundy. But after its extension under Charlemagnethe Frankish Empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in With the extinction of its male line in the Kyburg dynasty fell in AD ; then the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I Holy Roman Emperor in laid claim to the Kyburg lands and annexed them extending their territory to the eastern Swiss plateau.
The Confederacy, governed by nobles and patricians of various cantons, facilitated management of common interests and ensured peace on the important mountain trade routes. The Federal Charter of agreed between the rural communes of UriSchwyzand Unterwalden is considered the confederacy's founding document, even though similar alliances are likely to have existed decades earlier.
In the other colours are shown the subject territories. The expansion led to increased power and wealth for the confederation. This ended the so-called "heroic" epoch of Swiss history. It was not until more than one hundred years after these internal wars that, inunder the Peace of WestphaliaEuropean countries recognised Switzerland's independence from the Holy Roman Empire and its neutrality.
In the background to this struggle, the conflict between Catholic and Protestant cantons persisted, erupting in further violence at the First War of Villmergeninand the Toggenburg War or Second War of Villmergenin Inthe revolutionary French government conquered Switzerland and imposed a new unified constitution.
The new regimeknown as the Helvetic Republic, was highly unpopular. It had been imposed by a foreign invading army and destroyed centuries of tradition, making Switzerland nothing more than a French satellite state.
The fierce French suppression of the Nidwalden Revolt in September was an example of the oppressive presence of the French Army and the local population's resistance to the occupation.
When war broke out between France and its rivals, Russian and Austrian forces invaded Switzerland. The Swiss refused to fight alongside the French in the name of the Helvetic Republic. In Napoleon organised a meeting of the leading Swiss politicians from both sides in Paris.
The result was the Act of Mediation which largely restored Swiss autonomy and introduced a Confederation of 19 cantons.News Corp is a network of leading companies in the worlds of diversified media, news, education, and information services.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from skybox2008.com  The Tennis Court Oath (June ) preceded the abolition of feudalism (4 August ) and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (26 August ). References [ edit ] ^ a b Doyle, William ().
In Versailles, France, the deputies of the Third Estate, which represent commoners and the lower clergy, meet on the Jeu de Paume, an indoor tennis court, in defiance of King Louis XVI’s order.
PLOTTING THE DESTRUCTION OF THE US DOLLAR is now taking place by global financial elites. Both the undermining of the US dollar and the weakening of its role as the reserve-currency in the global market, was the underlying agenda of the Bilderberg Group, which convened its .
Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions.
Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from skybox2008.com The overthrow of the French Aristocracy that changed the government of France. The first rumblings began in and was fueled by the success of the American Revolution.