Early mesoamerican cultures

Mesoamerican Civilization El Caracol, named for the winding staircase within the cylindrical structure aka the "Observatory" because of its resemblance to an astronomical observatory among the ruins at the Mayan site of Chichen Itza, dating to the tenth century; photo credit Edit Grof Tisza Mesoamerica was yet another world location for the emergence of an early civilization, but Mesoamerican societies were not necessarily connected to a single famous river like the Nile as the other early civilizations were, though there were plenty of rivers in the New World.

Early mesoamerican cultures

A main distinction groups these different niches into two broad categories: The highlands show much more climatic diversity, ranging from dry tropical to cold mountainous climates ; the dominant climate is temperate with warm temperatures and moderate rainfall. Cultural sub-areas[ edit ] Several distinct sub-regions within Mesoamerica are defined by a convergence of geographic and cultural attributes.

Football history. Welcome to skybox2008.com, a website about football history including competitions, clubs and players. The history of football (soccer). Mesoamerica Timeline. Search Results. BCE - BCE BCE - BCE: The Archaic Period in Mesoamerica during which hunter-gatherer culture moved toward The Olmec Period which saw the rise of the Olmec culture's work in stone, first major cities appear. BCE: The Olmec civilization springs from the grouping of ancient. The term Mesoamerica literally means "middle America" in skybox2008.com America often refers to a larger area in the Americas, but it has also previously been used more narrowly to refer to Mesoamerica. An example is the title of the 16 volumes of The Handbook of Middle American Indians. "Mesoamerica" is broadly defined as the area that is home to the Mesoamerican civilization, which comprises a.

These sub-regions are more conceptual than culturally meaningful, and the demarcation of their limits is not rigid. The Maya area, for example, can be divided into two general groups: The lowlands are further divided into the southern and northern Maya lowlands.

The southern Maya lowlands are generally regarded as encompassing northern Guatemalasouthern Campeche and Quintana Roo in MexicoEarly mesoamerican cultures Belize. The tallest mountain in Mesoamerica is Pico de Orizabaa dormant volcano located on the border of Puebla and Veracruz.

The Sierra Madre mountains, which consist of several smaller ranges, run from northern Mesoamerica south through Costa Rica. The chain is historically volcanic. There are 83 inactive and active volcanoes within the Sierra Madre range, including 11 in Mexico, 37 in Guatemala, 23 in El Salvador, 25 in Nicaragua, and 3 in northwestern Costa Rica.

According to the Michigan Technological University, [12] 16 of these are still active. One important topographic feature is the Isthmus of Tehuantepeca low plateau that breaks up the Sierra Madre chain between the Sierra Madre del Sur to the north and the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to the south.

Settlement patterns

This area also represents the shortest distance between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean in Mexico. The northern side of the Isthmus is swampy and covered in dense jungle—but the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, as the lowest and most level point within the Sierra Madre mountain chain, was nonetheless a main transportation, communication, and economic route within Mesoamerica.

Bodies of water[ edit ] Outside of the northern Maya lowlands, rivers are common throughout Mesoamerica. Some of the more important ones served as loci of human occupation in the area. Additionally, no lakes exist in the northern peninsula.

The main source of water in this area is aquifers that are accessed through natural surface openings called cenotes. The biodiversity is among the richest in the world, though the number of species in the red list of the IUCN grows every year.

Chronology and culture[ edit ] Main article: Mesoamerican chronology Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization.

The history of human occupation in Mesoamerica is divided into stages or periods. These are known, with slight variation depending on region, as the Paleo-Indianthe Archaicthe Preclassic or Formativethe Classicand the Postclassic. The last three periods, representing the core of Mesoamerican cultural fluorescence, are further divided into two or three sub-phases.

Most of the time following the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century is classified as the Colonial period. The differentiation of early periods i. The Classic period through the Postclassic are differentiated by the cyclical crystallization and fragmentation of the various political entities throughout Mesoamerica.

Paleo-Indian[ edit ] The Mesoamerican Paleo-Indian period precedes the advent of agriculture and is characterized by a nomadic hunting and gathering subsistence strategy. Big-game hunting, similar to that seen in contemporaneous North Americawas a large component of the subsistence strategy of the Mesoamerican Paleo-Indian.

These sites had obsidian blades and Clovis -style fluted projectile points. Archaic[ edit ] The Archaic period — BC is characterized by the rise of incipient agriculture in Mesoamerica.

The initial phases of the Archaic involved the cultivation of wild plants, transitioning into informal domestication and culminating with sedentism and agricultural production by the close of the period.Mesoamerica Timeline. Search Results. BCE - BCE BCE - BCE: The Archaic Period in Mesoamerica during which hunter-gatherer culture moved toward The Olmec Period which saw the rise of the Olmec culture's work in stone, first major cities appear.

BCE: The Olmec civilization springs from the grouping of ancient.

Early mesoamerican cultures

Most Ancient Mesoamerican civilizations built pyramid-shaped structures. These were usually step pyramids, with temples on top more akin to the ziggurats.

of Mesopotamia than the Pyramids of Ancient Egypt.. Mesoamerican Pyramids served many functions from - from astronomical observatories to places of ritual worship and sacrifice, and perhaps something linked to extraterrestrials. Indian Tribes and Languages of Mexico This is an index to the Native American language and cultural information on our website pertaining to Mexican tribes.

Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation– BCE), the Archaic (before BCE), the Preclassic or Formative ( BCE– CE), the Classic (–CE), and the Postclassic (– CE), Colonial (–), and Postcolonial (–present).

The periodization of Mesoamerica is based on. Diane Wirth has collected an impressive number of cultural parallels between the Old World (Near East) and the New World (Mesoamerica).

She presents a large number of examples that show bearded figures in the early cultures of Mesoamerica which have usually been considered as beardless. This lesson focuses on the early cultures of Mesoamerica. The Olmec, Maya, and Aztecs developed great civilizations in Mesoamerica over millennia.

Then, after all of this development and the building of a great empire, the Aztec were quickly defeated by Hernando Cortes.

Mexican Indian Tribes and Languages